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シグナリング

Overview

Signaling APIs are a set of invitation process control APIs based on messages. They can be used to implement a variety of real-time features, including:
Mic-on or mic-off management in audio-video chat rooms (TUILiveRoom)
Audio/Video calls in chat scenarios
Control of the process for teachers to invite students to raise hands and speak in education scenarios

Features

Signaling APIs support the following features:

One-to-one chat invitation

When making a one-to-one chat via the simple message sending or receiving API or rich media message sending or receiving API, you can use the invite signaling API to initiate an end-to-end call invitation. When receiving the invitation notification onReceiveNewInvitation, the invitee can accept the invitation, reject the invitation, or wait until the invitation times out.

Group chat invitation

First, you need to manage a group by using group management APIs and listen for the group's event callbacks via V2TIMGroupListener. Then members of the group can initiate a group call invitation via inviteInGroup within the group. When receiving the invitation notification onReceiveNewInvitation, an invitee can accept the invitation, reject the invitation, or wait until the invitation times out.

Canceling an invitation

If an invitation has not timed out and has not been processed by an invitee, the inviter can cancel the invitation via cancel. After the inviter cancels the invitation, the invitee receives a cancellation notification onInvitationCancelled, and the invitation process ends.

Canceling an invitation



Accepting an invitation

When receiving an invitation notification onReceiveNewInvitation, an invitee can accept the invitation via accept if the invitation has not timed out and has not been canceled by the inviter. If the invitee accepts the invitation, the inviter receives an invitation acceptance notification onInviteeAccepted. After the processing (including invitation acceptance, rejection, and timeout) at the invitee side ends, the invitation process ends.

Accepting/Rejecting an invitation



Rejecting an invitation

When receiving an invitation notification onReceiveNewInvitation, an invitee can reject the invitation via reject if the invitation has not timed out and has not been canceled by the inviter. If the invitee rejects the invitation, the inviter receives an invitation rejection notification onInviteeRejected. After the processing (including invitation acceptance, rejection, and timeout) at the invitee side ends, the invitation process ends.

Invitation timeout

If the timeout period of the invitation API is greater than 0 and the invitee does not respond within the timeout period, the invitation times out, and the inviter and invitee will receive a timeout notification onInvitationTimeout. After the processing (including invitation acceptance, rejection, and timeout) at the invitee side ends, the invitation process ends. If the timeout period of the invitation API is 0, there will be no timeout notification.

Invitation timeout



Use Cases

Audio/Video call

In the open-source project TUIKit Demo, we developed a one-to-one and group audio/video call solution based on the TRTC component TUICalling for chat scenarios. You can directly modify the TUIKit demo for adaptation. The following takes the one-to-one video call process as an example to introduce how signaling APIs work with the TRTC SDK.
One-to-one video call process:
1. The inviter enters the TRTC room based on the room ID generated at the service layer and calls the signaling invitation API invite to initiate an audio/video call request, with the room ID included in the custom field of the invitation API.
2. The invitee receives the signaling invitation notification onReceiveNewInvitation and gets the room ID from the custom data. The invitee's phone begins to ring.
3. The invitee processes the invitation notification:
Accepting the invitation: The invitee calls the accept signaling API, enters the TRTC room based on the room ID, and calls the openCamera() function to enable the local camera. The inviter and invitee receive the onRemoteUserEnterRoom callback from the TRTC SDK, and the systems of the two parties record the start time of the call.
Rejecting the invitation: The invitee calls the reject signaling API to end the call.
If the invitee is on the phone with someone else, the invitee calls the reject signaling API to reject the invitation and to specify the rejection reason (busy local line) in the custom data.
4. After the invitee answers the call and the audio/video channel between the inviter and invitee is established, both the inviter and invitee will receive the onUserVideoAvailable event notification from the TRTC SDK, which indicates that they have received each other's video image. At this point, they can call the startRemoteView API of the TRTC SDK to display the remote video image, and the remote audio will be automatically played back by default.
5. After the call ends (either the inviter or invitee hangs up), the party who hangs up exits the TRTC room. The other party receives the onRemoteUserLeaveRoom callback from the TRTC SDK, and its system calculates the total duration of the call and initiates an invitation again. The custom data in the invitation specifies the call end event and call duration to facilitate UI display.
Flowchart



Teacher inviting students to raise hands and speak

In this scenario, the teacher asks students to raise hands and then chooses one of the students to speak. The process is as follows:
1. The teacher calls the inviteInGroup API to invite students to raise hands, specifying the hand raising operation in the custom field data. The students receive the onReceiveNewInvitation callback.
2. Based on the inviteeList and data fields in onReceiveNewInvitation, a student determines that he/she is one of the invitees and the operation is hand raising. Then the student calls the accept API to raise her/his hand.
3. If a student raises her/his hand, others can receive the onInviteeAccepted callback. The system determines that the data field specifies the hand raising operation and displays the list of students who raise hands.
4. The teacher calls the inviteInGroup API to invite one of the students who raise their hands to speak. At this time, the system specifies the speaking operation in the custom field data. The students receive the onReceiveNewInvitation callback.
5. Based on the inviteeList and data fields in the onReceiveNewInvitation callback, a student determines that he/she is one of the invitees and the operation is speaking. Then the student calls the accept API to speak.
6. If a student speaks, others can receive the onInviteeAccepted callback, and their systems determine that the data field specifies the speaking operation and display the list of students who speak.

FAQs

1. Can a user be invited by two users at the same time?
The signaling APIs (iOS | Android) provided by the SDK does not limit the invitation logic. One user can receive multiple signaling invitations at the same time. For the audio/video call scenario, the component TUICalling provides a "busy" alert.
2. Can I send multiple signaling invitations at the same time?
Yes. The upper-layer semantics need to distinguish the required operations in the invitations based on the actual business requirements.
3. The SDK provides signaling APIs for initiating, rejecting/accepting, and canceling invitations only. How do I implement the hang-up operation?
The invitation operation can be considered as a connection request by upper-layer semantics.
The hang-up operation can be considered as a hang-up request by upper-layer semantics.
You can call the invite API of the SDK to initiate an invitation and specify the current invitation as a connection or hang-up request in the custom data of the API. Then, SDK passes through the invitation to the peer for processing.
4. What is the handling logic when a sent signaling invitation times out?
If both the invitation sender and receiver are online, the timeout signaling is triggered by the receiver, and both the sender and receiver receive the onInvitationTimeout callback.
If the receiver is offline, the timeout signaling is triggered by the sender, who receives the onInvitationTimeout callback.
Timeout signaling is sent by SDK.
5. If I go offline and then go online again, do I receive signaling messages that have not timed out?
If you cold start the app (kill the process and click the app icon again to start the app), there are two situations depending on the chat type:
For a one-to-one chat, the SDK automatically synchronizes all signaling messages. If the signaling messages have not timed out, the SDK calls back onReceiveNewInvitation.
For a group chat, the SDK automatically synchronizes signaling messages of the last 30 seconds. If some of the signaling messages have not timed out, the SDK calls back onReceiveNewInvitation. If you hot start the app (click the app icon when the app runs in the background), the SDK synchronizes all signaling messages that have not timed out and calls back onReceiveNewInvitation, no matter whether the current chat is a one-to-one or group chat.
6. Is the inviteID unique in signaling callbacks?
Yes. An inviteID is a unique identifier of a set of signaling messages (including invitation initiation, acceptance/rejection, and timeout messages).